Notes to Chapter I

1]

Willy Ley.  Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel: Revised Edition.  Viking Press, 1957.

2]

Wernher von Braun, Frederick I. Ordway, and Dave Dooling.  Space Travel: A History.  Harper and Row, 1985.  This is the fourth edition of a book previously published under the title History of Rocketry and Space Travel.

3]

John M. Logsdon and George Butler.  "Space Station and Space Platform Concepts: A Historical Review."  Space Stations and Space Platforms - Concepts, Design, Infrastructure, and Uses, pages 203-263.  Edited by Ivan Bekey and Daniel Herman.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1985.

4]

Walter A. McDougall.  ...the Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age.  Basic Books, 1985.

5]

Ley [1], pages 40-42, 99.

6]

von Braun, Ordway, and Dooling [2], pages 17-18, 41, 44, 56.

7]

Jules Verne.  From the Earth to the Moon and Round the Moon (bound together), pages 167-169, 211-212, 227-229.  A. L. Burt, 1900? (old edition; publication data incomplete).  The pertinent passages are in [A]Round the Moon, chapters II, VI, and VIII.

8]

Ley [1], page 42.  In footnote 4, Ley lists several books and articles that discuss the physics behind Verne's fiction.

9]

von Braun, Ordway, and Dooling [2], pages 60, 76, 78.  The September 1962 edition of the journal Astronautics describes itself as "a publication of the American Rocket Society."  In fine print it claims to be "published monthly by the American Rocket Society, Inc., and American Interplanetary Society, Inc."  The copyright was owned by the American Rocket Society.  In 1963 the American Rocket Society and the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences merged to form the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

10]

Les Dorr.  "The Future As It Was."  Final Frontier, vol. 2, no. 4, page 22, August 1989.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

11]

Hermann Oberth.  Man into Space, page 62.  Translated by G. P. H. De Freville.  Harper and Brothers, 1957.  Published in Germany under the title Menschen im Weltraum.

12]

Ley [1], page 383.

13]

Ley [1], pages 373, 369.  Regarding the "wheel shape of the station," it is not clear whether his assertion was meant for the space station in general, or von Braun's station in particular.  His image of astronauts smoking cigarettes in the confines of the station is an indication of the innocent naivety of the time.

14]

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский).  Beyond the Planet Earth, page 5.  Foreword by B. N. Vorobyev.  Translated by Kenneth Syers.  Pergamon Press, 1960.  The main text was originally published in the Soviet Union under the title Вне Земли, by the Kaluga Society for Natural History and Local Studies, in 1920.  The author's surname is sometimes transliterated as Ziol- or -kovskii or -kovskiy; the original book title is sometimes translated as Outside of the Earth.

15]

Tsiolkovsky [14], pages 72-74, 137.

16]

Logsdon and Butler [3], page 204.  They date the illustration from 1903.  Though they do not name the original source, this is the year that Tsiolkovsky published his article The Exploration of Space by Means of Jet Devices (Исследование Мировых Пространств Реактивными Приборами) in the journal Scientific Review (Научное Обозрение).  To put this in historical perspective, the Wright brothers made their first flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903, and Robert Goddard began his work in rocketry in 1909.

17]

Ley [1], pages 99-100.

18]

von Braun, Ordway, and Dooling [2], pages 40-41.

19]

Ley [1], page 109.

20]

Oberth [11], pages 73-74, 81-85, 87.

21]

Ley [1], pages 368-369.

22]

Logsdon and Butler [3], page 205.

23]

Ley [1], pages 369-370.  Ley also faults Noordung for insisting on a 24-hour orbit:  he claims on page 369 that this would reduce the station's value by 75 per cent, by restricting it to a distant view of one hemisphere of the Earth.  But Oberth [11] claims on page 74 that this would be the most suitable orbit for Earth observation, assuming that three stations were positioned at 120-degree intervals.

24]

Oberth [11], pages 160-165.

25]

J. D. Bernal.  The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: An Enquiry into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul.  Indiana University Press, 1969.  Originally published by Methuen and Co., London, 1929.

26]

Wernher von Braun.  "Crossing the Last Frontier."  Collier's, vol. 129, no. 12, pages 24+, March 22, 1952.  Crowell-Collier Publishing Company.

27]

Willy Ley.  "A Station in Space."  Collier's, vol. 129, no. 12, pages 30-31, March 22, 1952.  Crowell-Collier Publishing Company.  This article accompanies a detailed rendering by Fred Freeman.

28]

Ley [1], pages 331, 372-376.  von Braun began to develop his space station concept before the Collier's symposium, and continued to do so afterward.  Ley provides details of both the early and late concepts that are not included in the Collier's articles, as well as some background information on the symposium itself.

29]

Dorr [10], pages 20+.  Dorr summarizes several related Collier's articles and Walt Disney films from the 1950's; von Braun is the common thread.  This article includes full-color reproductions of some of the original artwork created for Collier's and Disney.

30]

The International Geophysical Year (IGY) began on July 1, 1957.

31]

McDougall [4], page 134.

32]

Lyndon B. Johnson, quoted by Richard Hirsch and Joseph John Trento.  The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, page 108.  Cited by McDougall [4], page 320.

33]

McDougall [4], page 321.

34]

Hugh Sidey.  John F. Kennedy, President, page 118.  Cited by McDougall [4], page 302.

35]

McDougall [4], page 324.

36]

Logsdon and Butler [3], pages 208-210, 231-233.

37]

Logsdon and Butler [3], page 211.

38]

Saunders B. Kramer and Richard A. Byers.  "A Modular Concept for a Multi-Manned Space Station."  Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, April 20-22, 1960, pages 36-72.  Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, 1960.

39]

Kramer and Byers [38], page 49.

40]

Kramer and Byers [38], pages 36, 53.

41]

Fred A. Payne.  "Work and Living Space Requirements for Manned Space Stations."  Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, April 20-22, 1960, pages 100-103.  Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, 1960.

42]

Paul R. Hill and Emanuel Schnitzer.  "Rotating Manned Space Stations."  Astronautics, vol. 7, no. 9, pages 14-18, September 1962.  American Rocket Society.

43]

Rene A. Berglund.  "AEMT Space-Station Design."  Astronautics, vol. 7, no. 9, pages 19-24, September 1962.  American Rocket Society.

44]

Peter R. Kurzhals and James J. Adams.  "Dynamics and Stabilization of the Rotating Space Station."  Astronautics, vol. 7, no. 9, pages 25-29, September 1962.  American Rocket Society.

45]

Hill and Schnitzer [42], pages 15, 18.

46]

Logsdon and Butler [3], pages 214-217.

47]

Dandridge M. Cole and Donald W. Cox.  Islands in Space: The Challenge of the Planetoids.  Chilton Books, 1964.

48]

Alis D. Runge.  "Spaces in Space."  Progressive Architecture, vol. 50, no. 11, pages 132-144, November 1969.  Reinhold Publishing Corporation.

49]

Runge [48], page 141.

50]

S. Fred Singer, editor.  Manned Laboratories in Space.  Springer-Verlag, 1969.  Proceedings of the Second International Orbital Laboratory Symposium, organized by the International Academy of Astronautics at the 19th International Astronautical Congress, New York, October 18, 1968.

51]

Robert R. Gilruth.  "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to our Future in Space," pages 4-5, 8-10.  In Singer [50], pages 1-10.

52]

Theodore J. Gordon and Robert L. Gervais.  "Critical Engineering Problems of Space Stations," pages 16-18.  In Singer [50], pages 11-32.

53]

Walter M. Hollister.  "Orbital Laboratory - Stepping Stone to Interplanetary Flight," page 108.  In Singer [50], pages 99-109.

54]

Arthur C. Clarke.  2001: A Space Odyssey.  The New American Library, 1968.  Based on a screenplay by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke; film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Clarke is the inventor of the geosynchronous communications satellite, a concept he proposed in 1945.

55]

NASA, memorandum from Deputy Administrator.  "Preliminary Study of a Manned Space Station," July 19, 1966.  NASA Historical Archives, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.  Cited by Logsdon and Butler [3], page 222.

56]

Charles Donlan.  Presentations of study results on September 29, 1966, and several times in November, 1966.  NASA Historical Archives, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.  Cited by Logsdon and Butler [3], page 222.

57]

William J. Normyle.  "NASA Aims at 100-Man Station."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 90, no. 8, pages 16-17, February 24, 1969.  McGraw-Hill.

58]

NASA Office of Manned Space Flight (Advanced Manned Missions).  "Artificial Gravity Experiment Definition Study," page 89.  1970.

59]

NASA [58], page 93.

60]

Arthur Kantrowitz.  "The Relevance of Space."  Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 9, no. 3, pages 34-35, March 1971.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

61]

von Braun, Ordway, and Dooling [2], page 221.

62]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  "The Colonization of Space."  Physics Today, vol. 27, no. 9, pages 32-40, September 1974.  American Institute of Physics.

O'Neill is one of the inventors of the storage ring that is now "standard equipment" for nuclear particle accelerators.  He has also been active in the development of electromagnetic mass drivers, which he proposes to use for launching raw materials from the surface of the Moon to construction sites in orbit; a 1983 model achieved accelerations of 1,800 g.

63]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  The High Frontier, pages 296, 305-306, 310-311.  Anchor Books, 1982.

64]

Michael Leccese.  "Growing Pains."  Final Frontier, vol. 1, no. 2, pages 27-29, June 1988.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.  This article describes the merger of the National Space Institute and the L5 Society to form the National Space Society.  The designation "L5" refers to the fifth libration point in the Earth-Moon system, the proposed location of the first space colony.  For more on libration points, see note 67 below.

65]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  A letter to supporters, originally sent in 1991 and broadcast via electronic mail by the Space Frontier Foundation in 1993.

66]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  "The Colonization of Space."  Space Manufacturing Facilities (Space Colonies): Proceedings of the Princeton / AIAA / NASA Conference, May 7-9, 1975, pages A5-A11.  Edited by Jerry Grey.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.  Appendix A consists of the Proceedings of the May, 1974 Princeton Conference on Space Colonization.

67]

The libration points are equilibrium solutions to the "circular planar restricted three-body problem" of celestial mechanics.  A small, essentially massless body (satellite, space station), placed exactly at a libration point, will remain motionless relative to two large massive bodies (Earth and Moon).  There are five libration points.  L1, L2, and L3 are unstable.  L4 and L5 are stable within finite regions of space.

68]

O'Neill [66], page A8.

69]

O'Neill [66], pages A9, A10.

70]

O'Neill [63], pages 64-65.

71]

The surface area of a cylinder wall is related to its diameter and length by the formula:  a = pi × d × l.  Compared to his estimates of diameter and length, O'Neill's estimates of area seem at first to be too large by a factor of 2.  Apparently, he is referring to the total area of a pair of cylinders.  Recall that each rotating cylinder is to be paired with a counter-rotating "twin" to facilitate the precessional motion required for solar pointing.

72]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  Interview by Tony Reichhardt.  Final Frontier, vol. 1, no. 1, pages 56-61, April 1988.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

73]

Arthur C. Clarke.  Rendezvous with Rama.  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973.

74]

Gerald W. Driggers.  "Baseline L5 Construction Station."  Space Manufacturing Facilities (Space Colonies): Proceedings of the Princeton / AIAA / NASA Conference, May 7-9, 1975, pages 33-50.  Edited by Jerry Grey.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.

75]

Ludwig Glaeser.  "Architectural Studies for a Space Habitat."  Space Manufacturing Facilities (Space Colonies): Proceedings of the Princeton / AIAA / NASA Conference, May 7-9, 1975, pages 175-179.  Edited by Jerry Grey.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.

76]

Glaeser [75], page 177.

77]

Richard D. Johnson and Charles Holbrow, editors.  Space Settlements: A Design Study.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1977.  Special Publication 413: authored by the participants of the 1975 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design at Stanford University and NASA Ames Research Center.

78]

Johnson and Holbrow [77], page 43.

79]

Johnson and Holbrow [77], page 39.

80]

Patrick D. Hill.  Panel discussion.  Space Colonization: Technology and the Liberal Arts, page 144.  Edited by Charles H. Holbrow, Allan M. Russell, and Gordon F. Sutton.  American Institute of Physics, 1986.

81]

Gerard K. O'Neill and Brian O'Leary, editors.  Space-Based Manufacturing from Nonterrestrial Materials.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.  Volume 57, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics: technical papers derived from the 1976 Summer Study at NASA Ames Research Center.

82]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  "The Concept of Space-Based Manufacturing Facilities," page 14.  In O'Neill and O'Leary [81], pages 3-18.

83]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  "Maximum-Strength, Minimum-Mass Structures."  In O'Neill and O'Leary [81], pages 161-171.

84]

Gerard K. O'Neill and Gerald W. Driggers.  "Observable Effects In and Human Adaptation To Rotating Environments."  In O'Neill and O'Leary [81], pages 173-176.

85]

John Billingham and William Gilbreath, editors.  Space Resources and Space Settlements.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1979.  Special Publication 428: technical papers derived from the 1977 Summer Study at NASA Ames Research Center.

86]

Edward Bock, Fred Lambrou Jr., and Michael Simon.  "Effect of Environmental Parameters on Habitat Structural Weight and Cost."  In Billingham and Gilbreath [85], pages 33-60.

87]

J. Peter Vajk, Joseph H. Engel, and John A. Shettler.  "Habitat and Logistic Support Requirements for the Initiation of a Space Manufacturing Enterprise."  In Billingham and Gilbreath [85], pages 61-83.

88]

Vajk, Engel, and Shettler [87], page 73.

89]

Daniel Woodard and Alcestis R. Oberg.  "The Medical Aspects of a Flight to Mars," page 175.  The Case for Mars, pages 173-180.  Edited by Penelope J. Boston.  American Astronautical Society, 1984.  Paper no. AAS 81-239.

90]

Penelope J. Boston, Christopher P. McKay, Thomas R. Meyer, Carol R. Stoker, Steven M. Welch, and Roger B. Wilson.  "Conference Summary," page xviii.  The Case for Mars, pages xiii-xxi.  Edited by Penelope J. Boston.  American Astronautical Society, 1984.  Paper no. AAS 81-226.

91]

Steven Welch.  "Mission Strategy and Spacecraft Design for a Mars Base Program."  The Case For Mars II, pages 345-375.  Edited by Christopher P. McKay.  American Astronautical Society, 1985.  Paper no. AAS 84-169.  Volume 62 of the Science and Technology Series, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences.

92]

The report specifies the artificial gravity level variously as "Mars gravity", "1/3 g", and ".3 g".  On page 368, it specifies that "1/3 to 1/2 rpm will provide .3 g", but this is obviously an editing error.  At the 37-meter radius of the habitat, Mars-level gravity (0.38 g) requires 3 rpm.  A related paper from the "Case for Mars III" conference confirms that the correct spin rate is 3 rpm.  --  Robert L. Staehle.  "Earth Orbital Preparations for Mars Expeditions."  The Case For Mars III: Strategies for Exploration - General Interest and Overview, pages 373-396.  Edited by Carol Stoker.  American Astronautical Society, 1989.  Paper no. AAS 87-205.  Volume 74 of the Science and Technology Series, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences.

93]

Charles H. Holbrow, Allan M. Russell, and Gordon F. Sutton, editors.  Space Colonization: Technology and the Liberal Arts.  American Institute of Physics, 1986.  AIP conference proceedings 148: proceedings of a conference sponsored by Colgate University and Hobart and William Smith Colleges, held in Geneva, New York, October 11-12, 1985.

94]

Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], from the foreword (unpaginated).

95]

Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], page 121.

96]

Thomas A. Heppenheimer.  "Resources and Recollections of Space Colonization," page 136.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 129-140.

97]

David Van Blerkom.  "Baseball in Space: Space as a Unifying Theme in Physics for non-Science Majors."  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 13-25.

Van Blerkom wrote a program to simulate artificial gravity on a Commodore 64 microcomputer some time before this conference (October 11, 1985).  I wrote my own simulation on an Apollo workstation in 1987.  I discovered Van Blerkom's paper in 1991.

98]

William E. MacDaniel.  "Space in the Classroom," page 35.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 33-40.

99]

Marvin Israel and T. Scott Smith.  "Limitation and Life in Space," page 93.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 88-95.

100]

Israel and Smith [99], page 90.

101]

Steven Lee and Scott Brophy.  "Technological Possibility and Public Policy," pages 97-98.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 96-104.

102]

Gonzalo Munévar.  "Space Colonies and the Philosophy of Space Exploration," pages 9-10.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 2-12.

103]

Arthur Kantrowitz.  Panel discussion, page 151.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 141-153.

See also Kantrowitz [60].

104]

Thomas A. Heppenheimer.  Panel discussion, page 152.  In Holbrow, Russell, and Sutton [93], pages 141-153.

105]

Heppenheimer [104], page 150.

106]

Heppenheimer [104], page 143.

107]

Heppenheimer [96], pages 137-139.

108]

Thomas A. Heppenheimer.  Toward Distant Suns.  Fawcett Columbine Books, 1979.

109]

Michael L. Smith.  Book review:  Space Colonization - Technology and the Liberal Arts.  Isis, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 147-148, March 1989.  The History of Science Society, Inc.

110]

United States National Commission on Space.  Pioneering the Space Frontier: The Report of the National Commission on Space.  Bantam Books, 1986.

111]

United States National Commission on Space [110], pages 3-4, 107.

112]

United States National Commission on Space [110], pages 71, 124, 129.

113]

Von R. Eshleman.  "Colonization of Space: Destiny or Folly?"  Nature, vol. 324, page 115, November 13, 1986.  Macmillan Journals Ltd.

114]

David N. Schultz, Charles C. Rupp, Gregory A. Hajos, and John M. Butler.  "A Manned Mars Artificial Gravity Vehicle."  The Case For Mars III: Strategies for Exploration - General Interest and Overview, pages 325-352.  Edited by Carol Stoker.  American Astronautical Society, 1989.  Paper no. AAS 87-203.  Volume 74 of the Science and Technology Series, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences.

115]

In the split-mission scenario, an unmanned freighter carries much of the expedition mass to Mars orbit on a low-energy trajectory.  The freight includes landing modules, surface rovers, scientific equipment, and propellant for the return journey.  After the freighter has arrived safely, the crew travels to Mars on a high-energy trajectory, carrying only the mass required for their own life support.  This is proposed as a way to minimize the crew's exposure to the space environment without expending an inordinate amount of energy.  The relative motions of Earth and Mars are such that either the outbound or inbound flight will be non-optimal (and require more energy), unless the layover at Mars is several months.  The required energy is a function of the required change of velocity at each end of the interplanetary flight, and varies with the relative positions and motions of the planets.

116]

NASA.  Man-System Integration Standards.  NASA-STD-3000, volume 1, section 5.3.2.3, March 1987.

117]

Robert L. Staehle.  "Earth Orbital Preparations for Mars Expeditions."  The Case For Mars III: Strategies for Exploration - General Interest and Overview, pages 373-396.  Edited by Carol Stoker.  American Astronautical Society, 1989.  Paper no. AAS 87-205.  Volume 74 of the Science and Technology Series, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences.

118]

L. G. Lemke and R. B. Welch, editors.  "Workshop on the Role of Life Science in the Variable Gravity Research Facility."  NASA Ames Research Center, March 27-30, 1988.

119]

L. G. Lemke.  "VGRF Technology Overview and Strawman Design."  NASA Ames Research Center, March 27, 1988.

120]

Richard Saxon.  Atrium Buildings: Development and Design.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983.  An illustration of an "orbital city" appears on page 68, figure 93.  (Thanks to Mark Luther for this one.)

121]

Jesco von Puttkamer.  "The Long-Range Future."  Space Stations and Space Platforms - Concepts, Design, Infrastructure, and Uses, pages 355-384.  Edited by Ivan Bekey and Daniel Herman.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1985.

122]

NASA Office of External Relations (Management Support Division), editors.  NASA Space Plans and Scenarios to 2000 and Beyond, pages 79, 89.  Noyes Publications, 1986.

123]

Michael Cross.  "Japan Rekindles Plans For Rotating Space Station."  New Scientist, vol. 118, no. 1614, page 32, May 26, 1988.  IPC Magazines Ltd.

124]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  Introductory remarks.  Space Manufacturing 8 - Energy and Materials from Space: Proceedings of the Tenth Princeton / AIAA / SSI Conference, May 15-18, 1991, page xv.  Edited by Barbara Faughnan and Gregg Maryniak.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1991.