Notes to Chapter V

1]

William K. Hartmann, Ron Miller, and Pamela Lee.  Out of the Cradle: Exploring the Frontiers Beyond Earth, page 7.  Workman Publishing, 1984.

2]

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky.  Beyond the Planet Earth, page 13.  From the foreword by B. N. Vorobyev.  Translated by Kenneth Syers.  Pergamon Press, 1960.  These words of Tsiolkovsky are engraved in bronze letters on the obelisk that marks his grave.

3]

Hermann Oberth.  Man into Space, page 167.  Translated by G. P. H. De Freville.  Harper and Brothers, 1957.

4]

Anonymous.  "What Are We Waiting For?"  Collier's, vol. 129, no. 12, page 23, March 22, 1952.  Crowell-Collier Publishing Company.

5]

Hartmann, Miller, and Lee [1], pages 28-32.

6]

Gerard K. O'Neill.  The High Frontier, pages 26-27.  Anchor Books, 1982.

7]

Robert Heilbroner.  An Inquiry Into the Human Prospect.  W. W. Norton, 1974.  Cited by O'Neill [6], page 27.

8]

O'Neill [6], pages 246-247.

9]

Richard D. Johnson and Charles Holbrow, editors.  Space Settlements: A Design Study.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1977.  Special Publication 413: authored by the participants of the 1975 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design at Stanford University and NASA Ames Research Center.

10]

Gerard K. O'Neill and Brian O'Leary, editors.  Space-Based Manufacturing from Nonterrestrial Materials.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.  Volume 57, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics: technical papers derived from the 1976 Summer Study at NASA Ames Research Center.

11]

John Billingham, William Gilbreath, and Brian O'Leary, editors.  Space Resources and Space Settlements.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1979.  Special Publication 428: technical papers derived from the 1977 Summer Study at NASA Ames Research Center.

12]

Sven Hesselgren.  The Language of Architecture.  Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden, 1967.

13]

Niels Luning Prak.  The Language of Architecture: A Contribution to Architectural Theory.  Mouton, the Hague, the Netherlands, 1968.

14]

Thomas Thiis-Evensen.  Archetypes in Architecture.  Norwegian University Press, 1987.

15]

Christian Norberg-Schulz.  Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture.  Rizzoli, 1980.

16]

Vincent Scully.  Architecture: The Natural and the Manmade.  St. Martin's Press, 1991.

17]

Reyner Banham.  Theory and Design in the First Machine Age.  Praeger Publishers, second edition 1967.

18]

Hesselgren [12], page 309.

19]

Thiis-Evensen [14], page 19.

20]

Norberg-Schulz [15], page 8.

21]

Scully [16], page xi.

22]

Scully [16], page 1.

23]

Hesselgren [12], pages 218-228.

24]

Hesselgren [12], pages 13-151.

25]

Prak [13], pages 7-11.

26]

Norberg-Schulz [15], page 5.

27]

Unpublished remark by Gene Meyers during his presentation of "A California External Tank Space Station Program?" at the 11th biennial conference of the Space Studies Institute, Princeton University, May 13, 1993.

28]

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.  G. and C. Merriam, 1977.

29]

Bruce Bower.  "Infants Signal the Birth of Knowledge."  Science News, vol. 142, no. 20, page 325, November 14, 1992.  Science Service, Inc.

30]

In Kyeong Kim and Elizabeth S. Spelke.  "Infants' Sensitivity to Effects of Gravity on Visible Object Motion."  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 18, no. 2, pages 385-393, May 1992.  American Psychological Association.

31]

Timothy L. Hubbard.  "Cognitive Representation of Linear Motion: Possible Direction and Gravity Effects in Judged Displacement."  Memory and Cognition, vol. 18, no. 3, pages 299-309, May 1990.  The Psychonomic Society.

32]

Thiis-Evensen [14], page 151.

33]

Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akins.  Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight, page 38.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1985.  Special Publication 483.

34]

James E. Oberg and Alcestis R. Oberg.  Pioneering Space: Living on the Next Frontier, pages 12, 186, 196.  McGraw-Hill, 1986.

35]

Oberg and Oberg [34], page 196.

36]

Hesselgren [12], pages 27, 162, figure 2:19.  Although the long hangers are clearly visible in the photograph, it is not clear how they were arranged to lean parallel to the wall.  Presumably, they were tied back with thin wire, selected for its "invisibility".

37]

Hesselgren [12], page 309.

38]

Norberg-Schulz [15], page 12.

39]

Sven Hesselgren.  Man's Perception of Man-Made Environment: An Architectural Theory, page 179.  Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden, 1975.

40]

Alcestis R. Oberg.  "Solo."  Final Frontier, vol. 1, no. 2, pages 24-26, June 1988.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

41]

Oberg [40], page 60.

42]

Roger S. Ulrich.  "View Through a Window May Influence Recovery From Surgery."  Science, vol. 224, no. 4647, pages 420-421, April 27, 1984.  American Association for the Advancement of Science.

43]

Oberg and Oberg [34], pages 58, 196.

44]

Oberg and Oberg [34], pages 41-62.

45]

Norberg-Schulz [15], page 40.

46]

Vitruvius.  The Ten Books on Architecture, book 1, chapter 3, section 2.  Translated by Morris Hicky Morgan.  Dover, 1960.  Reprint of translation published by Harvard University, 1914.  Originally written by Vitruvius for the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar.

47]

Sir Henry Wotton.  The Elements of Architecture.  University Press of Virginia, 1968.  Originally published in London, 1624.

48]

Kenneth Frampton.  "Reflections on the Autonomy of Architecture: A Critique of Contemporary Production."  Out of Site: A Social Criticism of Architecture, pages 17-26.  Edited by Diane Ghirardo.  Bay Press, 1991.

49]

Antonio Sant'Elia.  "Messaggio (sull' Architettura Moderna)."  Quoted by Banham [17], pages 129-130.

50]

Charles Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier).  Vers une Architecture.  Quoted by Banham [17], pages 243, 226.

51]

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.  Quoted by Banham [17], page 272.

52]

Frampton [48].

53]

Margaret Crawford.  "Can Architects Be Socially Responsible?"  Out of Site: A Social Criticism of Architecture, pages 27-44.  Edited by Diane Ghirardo.  Bay Press, 1991.

54]

Prak [13], page 25.

55]

Norberg-Schulz [15], page 169.

56]

Hesselgren [12], page 52.

57]

Thiis-Evensen [14], page 249.

58]

John Summerson.  The Classical Language of Architecture.  Methuen and Co., London, 1964.

59]

Prak [13], pages 4-7.

60]

I wrote a small special-purpose program to generate the geometry of an involute curve and export it to modeling software.  The scene was modeled with GEDIT and rendered with RADIANCE.

GEDIT is a three-dimensional geometric editor and solid modeling system, developed at the Architecture and Planning Research Laboratory, University of Michigan.

RADIANCE is a lighting simulation and synthetic imaging system, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

61]

GEDIT [60].

62]

Fred A. Payne.  "Work and Living Space Requirements for Manned Space Stations."  Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, April 20-22, 1960, page 102.  Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, 1960.

63]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [33], pages 37-41.

64]

Prak [13], page 45.

65]

Gordon W. Allport and Thomas F. Pettigrew.  "Cultural Influence on the Perception of Movement: the Trapezoidal Illusion Among Zulus."  The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 55, no. 1, pages 104-113, July 1957.  The American Psychological Association.

The trapezoidal illusion is induced by a rotating trapezoidal window - "a dramatic masterpiece of ambiguous stimulation."  "The window is so proportioned that as it rotates, the length of the longer edge is always longer on the retina than is the shorter edge (even when the shorter edge is nearer).  The resulting perception is normally one of oscillation or sway; the observer apparently tending to keep the longer edge nearer to him.  Instead of seeming to rotate, as it actually does, the window is seen to sway back and forth in an arc of 90 to 180 degrees."

66]

Allport and Pettigrew [65], page 113.