To my parents,
who raised their children
to think for themselves.


Many people have contributed suggestions, constructive criticism, and encouragement in the development of this dissertation.

First and foremost, I wish to thank my Doctoral Committee - professors Colin Clipson, Harold Borkin, Harm Buning, and Joe Eisley - for their patience and for "giving me enough rope".  In embarking on this research, I had trouble articulating specific goals or plans.  The committee members helped me to identify a destination while giving me the freedom to find my own path.  In the department of Aerospace Engineering, professors Buning and Eisley checked my understanding and presentation of physics and mechanics.  They weeded out several inaccuracies and over-simplifications in chapter 3, and offered criticisms that led to a significant improvement in the organization of chapter 4.  In the department of Architecture, professors Clipson and Borkin kept me from going completely off the deep end with abstract mathematics.  I could not have written chapter 5 without their inspiration and guidance.  Their questions, comments, and suggestions were continual reminders that, for architects, understanding the environment is merely a prelude to designing for it.

I also wish to thank Professor Buning and my classmates in Aero 483 - Aerospace System Design, Winter 1987 - for making the "token architect" feel at home.  My experience in that class provided some insight into the problems and constraints faced by aerospace engineers, and helped me to discern how an architect might contribute to extraterrestrial environmental design.  Although a discussion of "Project CAMELOT" isn't explicit in this dissertation, I've thought of it often throughout my research and writing.

Several people have contributed valuable reference material.  Professors Colin Clipson and Lee Pastalan supplied stacks of NASA reports through their own past and present research activities.  Professor Harold Borkin loaned relevant books from his personal library.  Professor James Turner happened across an old article in Progressive Architecture devoted to space habitat design.  NASA architect and fellow doctoral student Marc Cohen loaned to me his copies of the reports from the 1975 and 1977 NASA Ames Summer Studies, and provided a draft copy of his paper on space structures along with numerous bibliographic references.  Mark Luther found a concept drawing of an "orbital city" in a book on atrium design.  Patrick Tripeny provided several references on structural design.

Tye-Yan "George" Yeh contributed the "fountain" sketch that appears as figure 5.6.  When I explained to him what I was working on late one evening, he practically begged me to let him do it.  He had just finished working on an architectural competition with Mark Luther, and was "in the groove".

It has been said that, if you want to learn something, try teaching it.  In this regard, as well as the chance to meet other researchers in the field, I have benefited from several opportunities to present my work in progress.  I especially wish to thank professors Aureo Andino and Eduardo Sobrino of the School of Architecture, University of Puerto Rico, for their hospitality in hosting me as a visitor to their space design studio (in December 1988 and March 1993).  This studio is supported in part by the NASA Universities Space Research Association (USRA), which also supports the "Aero 483" class here at Michigan.  Through a happy set of coincidences, Professor Sobrino was completing his doctorate in architecture at Michigan while I was participating in "Aero 483"; the following year, he was back in Puerto Rico when Professor Andino obtained a copy of our report from "Project CAMELOT".

I am grateful to the Space Studies Institute (SSI) for the opportunity to present my research at its 1991 and 1993 Princeton conferences.  I hope to continue in active participation at future SSI conferences.  I am also grateful to the Ann Arbor Space Society (A2S2) for inviting me to speak at their public meeting in October 1993.

I wish to thank researchers from outside the University of Michigan who took the time to read and respond to early drafts of this dissertation in various stages of completion.  In 1992, in search of ideas, I went on a "fishing expedition" and sent unsolicited manuscripts to several experts around the country.  Professor Larry Bell, director of the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, University of Houston, was kind enough to respond with a thoughtful letter describing his view of space habitability research and the prospects for artificial gravity.  He also put me in touch with Dr. David Cardús of the Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, Baylor College of Medicine (Houston), with whom I have had a valuable correspondence.  Dr. Cardús is conducting research with an "artificial gravity sleeper" (designed and built by Professor Bell's private company, Bell & Trotti, Inc.), and has provided copies of several of his research papers.

During my visit to the University of Puerto Rico in March 1993, I met Professor Gary T. Moore of the University of Wisconsin (Milwaukee).  Professor Moore, who also conducts a USRA-supported design studio, volunteered to read a draft of the dissertation and provided thoughtful discussion and encouragement.

Dr. Stanley Mohler, director of aerospace medicine at Wright State University (Dayton) served as session chair during my presentation to the Space Studies Institute in May 1993.  Dr. Mohler also agreed to read a draft of the dissertation, and provided a copy of his paper on "aging and space travel" as well as commentary on Wolff's Law and bone loss.

Numerous other people have contributed to this effort in less direct ways.  I am grateful to:  professors Harold Borkin, Colin Clipson, James Turner, and anyone else who helped to arrange my employment as a research assistant; professors Robert Johnson and James Chaffers, past and present chairmen of the doctoral program in architecture, for their support and encouragement; Jean Ellis, doctoral program secretary, for navigating through the academic bureaucracy; Wassim Jabi, for technical advice and assistance in scanning, printing, and copying; all my fellow doctoral students, for stimulating discussions and moral support.

I thank my family for their love, concern, and support.

Above all, I thank God, as various things have worked out better than I had any right to expect.