List of Figures

Figure

1.1

Tsiolkovsky, 1903.

10

1.2

Ganswindt, circa 1890.

11

1.3

Oberth, "Springboard Station", 1957.

12

1.4

Noordung, "Wohnrad", 1928.  Perspective.

14

1.5

Noordung, "Wohnrad", 1928.  Sections.

15

1.6

von Braun, 1952.  Perspective.

18

1.7

von Braun, 1952.  Cutaway.

19

1.8

Lockheed (Kramer and Byers), 1960.  Perspective.

23

1.9

Lockheed (Kramer and Byers), 1960.  Schematic.

24

1.10

North American (Payne), 1960.

27

1.11

NASA Langley and North American, "AEMT", 1962.  Deployment.

30

1.12

NASA Langley and North American, "AEMT", 1962.  Perspective.

31

1.13

NASA Langley and North American, "AEMT", 1962.  Section.

31

1.14

NASA Langley and Douglas, "MORL", 1966.

32

1.15

Cole and Cox, 1964.

34

1.16

Grumman, and Warner Burns Toan and Lunde, 1969.  Concept sketch for 50-man space base.

35

1.17

Grumman, and Warner Burns Toan and Lunde, 1969.  Full-scale mock-up of space base module interior.

36

1.18

Gilruth, 1968.  Artificial-Gravity Research Environment.

38

1.19

Gilruth, 1968.  50-man space station.

38

1.20

Kubrick and Clarke, "Space Station V", 1968.

40

1.21

Kubrick and Clarke, "Spaceship Discovery", 1968.

41

1.22

Space station concept, 1970.

45

1.23

O'Neill, "Model 1", 1974.  Side view.

49

1.24

O'Neill, "Model 4", 1974.  Cross section and size comparison to Earthbound structures.

51

1.25

O'Neill, "Island One", 1977.  Cross section and size comparison to Earthbound structures.

52

1.26

O'Neill, "Island One", 1977.  Interior views.

53

1.27

Driggers, 1975.  Orthographic views.

56

1.28

Stanford Torus, 1975.  Schematic.

60

1.29

Stanford Torus, 1975.  Cutaway view.

62

1.30

Stanford Torus, 1975.  Interior views.

64

1.31

Vajk, Engel, and Shettler, 1977.

69

1.32

Welch, 1984.  Interplanetary habitat.

74

1.33

Schultz, Rupp, Hajos, and Butler, 1987.  Manned Mars vehicle, orthographic views.

82

1.34

Staehle, 1987.  Variable Gravity Research Station.

85

1.35

Lemke, 1988.  Variable Gravity Research Facility, straw-man design.

87

2.1

Slow Rotation Room, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida.

116

2.2

Rotating Space Station Simulator, NASA Langley Research Center, 1960's.

118

2.3

Moon gravity simulator, NASA Langley Research Center, 1960's.

119

2.4

Comfort chart, Hill and Schnitzer, 1962.

120

2.5

Comfort chart, Gilruth, 1968.

121

2.6

Comfort chart, Gordon and Gervais, 1968.

122

2.7

Comfort chart, Cramer, 1983.

125

3.1

Second Law of Motion.

142

3.2

Law of Gravitation.

142

3.3

Free-fall, orbit, and weightlessness.

145

3.4

Gravity, acceleration, and weight.

147

3.5

Linear acceleration.

151

3.6

Centripetal acceleration.

151

3.7

Centripetal acceleration and rotation.

154

3.8

Relative velocity in a rotating reference.

159

3.9

Relative velocity and Coriolis acceleration.

159

3.10

Extra accelerations associated with relative motion in a rotating reference.

161

3.11

Linear and angular momentum.

165

3.12

Cross-coupled rotations.

173

3.13

Mass shift in equatorial plane.

174

3.14

Mass shift out of equatorial plane.

175

3.15

Tidal accelerations.

182

3.16

Tether with gravity gradient.

188

3.17

Cylinder structure.

192

3.18

Sphere structure.

194

3.19

Torus structure.

195

3.20

Straight tether structure.

196

3.21

Tapered tether structure.

198

3.22

Crystal Palace structure.

200

4.1

Cardinal directions in artificial gravity.

211

4.2

Comparison of natural and artificial gravity.

212

4.3

Inertial view of dropped ball.

214

4.4

Rotating view of dropped ball.

214

4.5

Dropping a ball in artificial gravity - relationship of floor radius to trajectory deflection.

217

4.6

Inertial view of thrown ball.

218

4.7

Rotating view of thrown ball.

218

4.8

Earth-normal view of thrown ball.

219

4.9

Throwing a ball in artificial gravity - comparison of trajectories for one-g environments.

220

4.10

Coordinate systems used to analyze the relative trajectory of a ball in artificial gravity.

223

4.11

Earth-normal gravity.

225

4.12

Artificial gravity and the comfort zone.

226

4.13

Gravity levels in a radially-oriented rotating space station.

227

4.14

Typical slopes in terrestrial architecture.

229

4.15

Acceleration of an observer walking west-to-east on a flat floor in a rotating environment.

233

4.16

Slope of floor and strength of gravity perceived by the observer in figure 4.15.

233

4.17

Acceleration of an observer walking east-to-west on a flat floor in a rotating environment.

234

4.18

Slope of floor and strength of gravity perceived by the observer in figure 4.17.

234

4.19

Acceleration of an observer climbing a ladder in a rotating environment.

235

4.20

Slope of ladder and strength of gravity perceived by the observer in figure 4.19.

235

4.21

Spiral stairs in Noordung's "Wohnrad" concept, 1928.

238

4.22

First approximation of spiral stair with constant apparent slope.

238

4.23

Slope distortion in first approximation of spiral stair due to Coriolis acceleration in prograde ascent.

240

4.24

Slope adjustment to compensate for Coriolis acceleration in prograde ascent.

241

4.25

Slope adjustment to compensate for Coriolis acceleration in retrograde descent.

241

4.26

Second approximation of spiral stair with constant apparent slope in prograde ascent.

243

4.27

Second approximation of spiral stair with constant apparent slope in retrograde descent.

243

4.28

Slope distortion in first approximation of spiral stair due to Coriolis and relative accelerations in prograde ascent.

247

4.29

Module axis orientation.

252

5.1

Experiments in the formal expression of east and west in an artificial-gravity environment.  (Overview.)

277

5.2

Experiments in the formal expression of east and west in an artificial-gravity environment.  (Enlargement.)

278

5.3

A neighborhood in downtown Ann Arbor, Michigan, bent at a radius of 250 meters.  (Overview.)

279

5.4

A neighborhood in downtown Ann Arbor, Michigan, bent at a radius of 250 meters.  (Enlargement.)

280

5.5

Cardinal directions and apparent rotation of star field.

282

5.6

A fountain in artificial gravity.

285