Notes to Chapter II

1]

Heinz Haber.  "Can We Survive in Space?"  Collier's, vol. 129, no. 12, pages 35+, March 22, 1952.  Crowell-Collier Publishing Company.

2]

Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akins.  Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1985.  Special Publication 483.

3]

James E. Oberg and Alcestis R. Oberg.  Pioneering Space: Living on the Next Frontier.  McGraw-Hill, 1986.

4]

Phil Gunby.  "Space Medicine Faces Massive Task as Humans Venture Farther from Earth."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, page 2009, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

5]

Terra Ziporyn.  "Aerospace Medicine: The First 200 Years."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, page 2010, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

6]

Charles Marwick.  "Physicians Called Upon to Help Chart Future Space Effort."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, pages 2015+, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

7]

Phil Gunby.  "Soviet Space Medical Data Grow, Other Nations Joining In."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, pages 2026+, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

8]

Chris Anne Raymond.  "Physicians Trade White Coats for Space Suits."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, pages 2033+, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

9]

Beverly Merz.  "The Body Pays a Penalty for Defying the Law of Gravity."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, pages 2040+, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

10]

Marsha F. Goldsmith.  "How Will Humans Act As Science Fiction Becomes Fact?"  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 15, pages 2048+, October 17, 1986.  American Medical Association.

11]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 93-94.  Also, a photograph of the Soviet and American lower-body negative-pressure devices appears on the fourth unnumbered page between 160 and 161.

12]

Gunby [7], page 2026.

13]

Marwick [6], page 2020.

14]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 129.

15]

Marwick [6], page 2020.

16]

Gunby [7], page 2026.

17]

Merz [9], pages 2042-2043.  She states that heart output and heart rate typically increase during weightlessness, but that output decreases to subnormal levels after return to Earth.  But see the next two notes ...

18]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 20.  They summarize the cardiovascular changes as "reduced output of the heart, decreased heart rate, decreased heart size, and diminished blood volume regulation."  [Emphasis mine.]  They cite:  Charles A. Berry.  "Weightlessness."  Bioastronautics Data Book, second edition, pages 349-416.  NASA SP-3006, 1973.

19]

Marwick [6], page 2020.  He quotes Robert H. Moser, the chairman of NASA's Life Sciences Advisory Committee:  "the decrease seen in the left ventricular output is normal."  [Emphasis mine.]

20]

Various psychological factors may have contributed to the elevated blood pressure readings obtained on this particular flight of Discovery (mission 51-D, April 12-19, 1985).  The failed deployment of an $85-million satellite significantly disrupted the mission and led to the most intensive orbital repair attempt since Skylab.  Also, Discovery's crew of seven was crowded into a smaller volume than Skylab's crew of three.  --  Craig Covault.  "Astronauts, Controllers Mobilize for Leasat Rescue Attempt."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 122, no. 16, pages 18-21, April 22, 1985.  McGraw-Hill.  --  Anonymous.  "Shuttle Crew Returns to Leasat, Conducts Space Medical Tests."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 122, no. 17, page 39, April 29, 1985.  McGraw-Hill.

21]

Merz [9], page 2043.

22]

Daniel Woodard and Alcestis R. Oberg.  "The Medical Aspects of a Flight to Mars," page 175.  The Case for Mars, pages 173-180.  Edited by Penelope J. Boston.  American Astronautical Society, 1984.  Paper no. AAS 81-239.

23]

Merz [9], page 2043.

24]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 25.

25]

Ingrid Wickelgren.  "Muscles In Space Forfeit More Than Fibers."  Science News, vol. 134, no. 18, page 277, October 29, 1988.  Science Service, Inc.

26]

Woodard and Oberg [22], pages 174-175.

27]

Stanley R. Mohler.  "Aging and Space Travel."  Aerospace Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pages 594-597, May 1962.  Aerospace Medical Association.

28]

Don B. Chaffin and Gunnar B. J. Andersson.  Occupational Biomechanics, page 25.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1984.

29]

Woodard and Oberg [22], page 175.

30]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 20.

31]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 131-132.

32]

Merz [9], page 2043.

33]

Woodard and Oberg [22], page 175.

34]

Marwick [6], page 2020.

35]

Anonymous.  "The Surly Bonds of Earth."  Discover, vol. 13, no. 9, page 14, September 1992.  The Walt Disney Company.  This is a paragraph in the "Breakthroughs" section that describes research conducted by Brian Davis at Pennsylvania State University.

36]

Woodard and Oberg [22], page 176.

37]

Daniel Woodard.  "Countermeasures for the Effects of Prolonged Weightlessness."  The Case for Mars II, pages 655-663.  Edited by Christopher P. McKay.  American Astronautical Society, 1985.  Paper no. AAS 84-187.

38]

T. S. Keller, A. M. Strauss, and M. Szpalski.  "Prevention of Bone Loss and Muscle Atrophy During Manned Space Flight."  Microgravity Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 2, pages 89-102, 1992.  Pergamon Press.

39]

Gunby [7], page 2026.

40]

Ingrid Wickelgren.  "Bone Loss and the Three Bears."  Science News, vol. 134, no. 26, pages 424-425, December 24, 1988.  Science Service, Inc.

41]

Mubarak Dahir.  "The Bear Necessities of Space Travel."  Final Frontier, vol. 5, no. 5, pages 12-13, October 1992.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

42]

Anonymous.  "326 Days In Space."  Science News, vol. 133, no. 1, page 7, January 2, 1988.  Science Service, Inc.

43]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 20.

44]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 131.

45]

Marwick [6], page 2020.

46]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 130.

47]

Merz [9], page 2052.

48]

Peter H. Diamandis.  "Reconsidering Artificial Gravity for Twenty-First Century Space Habitats," page 58.  Space Manufacturing 6 - Nonterrestrial Resources, Biosciences, and Space Engineering: Proceedings of the Eighth Princeton / AIAA / SSI Conference, May 6-9, 1987, pages 55-68.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987.

49]

Marwick [6], page 2020.

50]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 131.

51]

Richard M. Satava.  "Surgery in Space: Surgical Principles in a Neutral Buoyancy Environment."  Space Manufacturing 8 - Energy and Materials from Space: Proceedings of the Tenth Princeton / AIAA / SSI Conference, May 15-18, 1991, page 187.  Edited by Barbara Faughnan and Gregg Maryniak.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1991.

52]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], pages 35-51.

53]

Craig Covault.  "Spacelab Stresses Life Sciences Study."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 119, no. 13, pages 73-82, September 26, 1983.  McGraw-Hill.

54]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], pages 35-51.

55]

Merz [9], pages 2040-2041.

56]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 9, 129-130.

57]

Raymond [8], page 2033.

58]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 182, 186.

59]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 64.

60]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 129.

61]

Raymond [8], page 2033.

62]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 86, 182.

63]

Oberg and Oberg [3], pages 17-18.

64]

Brand Norman Griffin.  "Design Guide: The Influence of Zero-G and Acceleration on the Human Factors of Spacecraft Design."  NASA Johnson Space Center, August 1978.

65]

Oberg and Oberg [3], page 12.

66]

Ray Spangenburg and Diane Moser.  "The World's Highest Rollercoaster: We Road Test NASA's Zero-Gravity Learjet."  Final Frontier, vol. 1 no. 4, pages 23+, October 1988.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.  A simple "reach and touch" experiment is described on page 25.

67]

Marwick [6], pages 2016, 2020.

68]

Frank M. Sulzman, chief of NASA's space medical and biological branch.  Quoted by Craig Covault.  "Record Soviet Manned Space Flight Raises Human Endurance Questions."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 128, no. 1, page 25, January 4, 1988.  McGraw-Hill.

69]

Les Dorr.  "326 Days In Space."  Final Frontier, vol. 1, no. 3, page 62, August 1988.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

70]

Jeffrey M. Lenorovitz.  "Soviet Long-Duration Cosmonauts Readapt Rapidly to Earth Environment."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 130, no. 1, pages 38-39, January 2, 1989.  McGraw-Hill.

71]

Anonymous.  "Long-Duration Soviet Cosmonaut Crew Made Rapid Adaptation After Flight."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 131, no. 13, page 96, September 25, 1989.  McGraw-Hill.

72]

Yandell Henderson and E. G. Seibert.  "Organization and Objects of the Medical Research Board, Air Service, U. S. Army."  Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 71, no. 17, page 1382, October 26, 1918.  American Medical Association.

73]

Carl C. Clark and James D. Hardy.  "Gravity Problems in Manned Space Stations."  Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, April 20-22, 1960, pages 104-113.  Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, 1960.

74]

Radians are dimensionless:

[math]

Therefore, the vector product of angular velocities is an angular acceleration.

75]

Ashton Graybiel.  "Some Physiological Effects of Alternation Between Zero Gravity and One Gravity."  Space Manufacturing Facilities (Space Colonies): Proceedings of the Princeton / AIAA / NASA Conference, May 7-9, 1975, pages 137-149.  Edited by Jerry Grey.  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.

Graybiel had been experimenting with rotating rooms for at least fifteen years when this paper was written - Clark and Hardy cite a paper by Graybiel from 1960.

76]

C. J. Houtchens.  "Artificial Gravity."  Final Frontier, vol. 2, no. 3, pages 28+, June 1989.  Final Frontier Publishing Company.

77]

Robert R. Nunamaker and Lawrence F. Rowell.  "Langley Research Center Resources and Needs for Manned Space Operations Simulation."  Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, October 5-8, 1987.  Society of Automotive Engineers.  Paper no. SAE 871724.

78]

Diamandis [48], page 60.

79]

Paul R. Hill and Emanuel Schnitzer.  "Rotating Manned Space Stations."  Astronautics, vol. 7, no. 9, pages 14-18, September 1962.  American Rocket Society.

80]

For a given mass (m) and radius (r), apparent weight (w') is proportional to the square of the tangential velocity (V):

[math]

With a rim speed of 20 feet per second, to avoid changing the apparent weight by more than 15 percent, a person's walking speed should not exceed about 1.5 feet per second (about 1 mile per hour):

[math]

81]

In 1963 the American Rocket Society and the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences merged to form the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

82]

David N. Schultz, Charles C. Rupp, Gregory A. Hajos, and John M. Butler.  "A Manned Mars Artificial Gravity Vehicle."  The Case For Mars III: Strategies for Exploration - General Interest and Overview, pages 325-352.  Edited by Carol Stoker.  American Astronautical Society, 1989.  Paper no. AAS 87-203.

83]

Robert L. Staehle.  "Earth Orbital Preparations for Mars Expeditions."  The Case For Mars III: Strategies for Exploration - General Interest and Overview, pages 373-396.  Edited by Carol Stoker.  American Astronautical Society, 1989.  Paper no. AAS 87-205.

84]

Barry Tillman.  "Human Factors in the Design of an Artificial Gravity Research Facility," figure 7.  Unpublished report prepared under contract with Lockheed, 1987.

85]

Robert R. Gilruth.  "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to our Future in Space."  Manned Laboratories in Space, pages 1-10.  Edited by S. Fred Singer.  Springer-Verlag, 1969.

86]

Theodore J. Gordon and Robert L. Gervais.  "Critical Engineering Problems of Space Stations."  Manned Laboratories in Space, pages 11-32.  Edited by S. Fred Singer.  Springer-Verlag, 1969.

87]

Ralph W. Stone.  "An Overview of Artificial Gravity."  Fifth Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space Exploration, pages 23-33.  Edited by Ashton Graybiel.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Division, 1973.  Special Publication 314: proceedings of a symposium held in Pensacola, Florida, August 19-21, 1970.

88]

Here, briefly, are the algebraic deductions from Stone's criteria.  The parameters are: inertial angular velocity of station (Ω); relative angular velocity of head (λ); inertial tangential velocity of station (V); relative velocity of crew member or object (v); rotational radius (r); height (h).  The units are radians, meters, and seconds.  The relevant formulas are derived in Chapters 3 and 4.

  • total gravity, allowing 50% change in apparent weight due to walking:

    [math]

  • walking, Coriolis plus relative centripetal:

    [math]

  • carrying, Coriolis plus relative centripetal:

    [math]

  • climbing Coriolis:

    [math]

  • lifting Coriolis:

    [math]

  • dropping deflection (no direct algebraic solution - requires root finding):

    [math]

  • gravity gradient:

    [math]

  • head rotations:

    [math]

89]

D. Bryant Cramer.  "Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity."  Applications of Tethers in Space, volume 1, pages 3·95-3·107.  Edited by Alfred C. Cron.  NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1985.  Conference Publication 2364: proceedings of a workshop held in Williamsburg, Virginia, June 15-17, 1983.

90]

Coriolis acceleration is directly proportional to relative velocity.  For any given Coriolis/centripetal ratio, a lower velocity standard implies a reciprocally greater Coriolis tolerance.

For climbing, Stone specified a ratio of 0.30 at a velocity of 2 feet per second (0.6 meters per second).  Thus, Cramer's Coriolis limit is 0.25/0.30 × 2/3 = 5/9 of Stone's limit for climbing.

For lifting, Stone specified a ratio of 0.25 at a velocity of 4 feet per second (1.2 meters per second).  Thus, Cramer's Coriolis limit is 0.25/0.25 × 4/3 = 4/3 of Stone's limit for lifting.

Cramer's limit implies a minimum tangential velocity of 24 feet per second:

[math]

91]

NASA.  Man-System Integration Standards.  NASA-STD-3000, volume 1, section 5.3.2.3, March 1987.

92]

G. Antonutto, C. Capelli, and P. E. di Prampero.  "Pedalling in Space as a Countermeasure to Microgravity Deconditioning."  Microgravity Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, pages 93-101, 1991.  Pergamon Press.

93]

Peter Diamandis.  "Designing for Artificial Gravity."  Presented at the conference "Space Station Design and Development - Tools, Techniques, Opportunities," coordinated by Fred A. Stitt and Paige Conrad, Chicago, May 4, 1988.  No published proceedings.  This was a concurrent conference with A/E/C SYSTEMS '88 ®.

94]

Houtchens [76].

95]

David Cardús, Peter Diamandis, Wesley G. McTaggart, and Scott Campbell.  "Development of an Artificial Gravity Sleeper (AGS)."  The Physiologist, vol. 33, no. 1, supplement, pages S112-S113, 1990.  American Physiological Society.

96]

Craig Covault.  "Spacelab Stresses Life Sciences Study."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 119, no. 13, pages 73-82, September 26, 1983.  McGraw-Hill.

97]

Craig Covault.  "Spacelab Returns Broad Scientific Data."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 119, no. 23, pages 18-20, December 5, 1983.  McGraw-Hill.

98]

Anonymous.  "Spacelab Scientists Prove 1914 Theory."  Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 119, no. 23, page 24, December 5, 1983.  McGraw-Hill.

99]

Wernher von Braun, Frederick I. Ordway, and Dave Dooling.  Space Travel: A History.  Harper and Row, 1985.

Page 266 states:  "The most striking result here was the overturning of a Nobel-prize-winning 1904 theory of the function of the inner ear system."  This statement is wrong on two counts.  The 1904 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology went to Ivan Petrovich Pavlov "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion," and was unrelated to the inner ear.  The 1914 Nobel Prize was awarded to Robert Bárány "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus."  Bárány observed dizziness and nystagmus in patients when their ears were flushed with water that was either too hot or too cold.  Experiments on Spacelab I confirmed this effect.  --  Theodore L. Sourkes.  Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology, 1901-1965, pages 20-24, 85-89.  Abelard-Schuman, 1966.

100]

Connors, Harrison, and Akins [2], page 34.

101]

Diamandis [48], page 58.

102]

Keller, Strauss, and Szpalski [38].